Fluorescent proteins

Interactive FP database (c) 2017 Kurt Thorn and Talley Lambert.    The old Nikon Imaging Center at UCSF Page is here

Photoswitchable FP database

Web pages

  1. Preferred fluorescent protein table  – Albert Einstein College of Medicine  and also see this table.
  2. Points to keep in mind when choosing a flourescent protein
  3. Fluorescent proteins in contextNature focus article
  4. Genetically-encoded fluorescent tags (Thorn, 2017)
  5. A quick overview of GFP (Nienhaus, 2008)
  6. mScarlet (Bindels et al, 2017)
  7. Molecular Expressions – Optical Microscopy Primer site A report on this website (Eliceiri, 2004) is here.
  8. Fluorescent Proteins on Scholarpedia on Nikon MicroscopyU on Zeiss Campus and BioTek page – scroll down for table
  9. I love GFP – comprehensive table of data
  10. Addgene Fluorescent proteins ebook
  11. Basics of FRET microscopy
  12. PLoS Biology blog (Ganley, 2013) From Jellyfish GFPs to Plant MiniSOGs; a Microscopy Revolution
  13. Bio-Rad lbog – (Dec 2016) History and development of fluorescent proteins
  14. Scienceglass blog (May 2017) – Jellyfish


  1. Campbell lab
  2. Matz lab
  3. Shaner lab
  4. Lukvanov lab
  5. Former Tsien lab 2008 Nobel Prize winner
  6. Verkhusha lab

Selected References

  1. Rodriguez, EA etal (2017) The Growing and Glowing Toolbox of Fluorescent and Photoactive Proteins Trends Biochem Sci. 42/2: 111-129
  2. Cranfill, PJ et al (2016) Quantitative assessment of fluorescent proteins Nature Methods 13/7: 557-562
  3. Kremers, G-J et al (2011) Fluorescent proteins at a glance Journal of Cell Science 124/2: 157-160
  4. Points to keep in mind when choosing an FP  and a quick overview of GFP  and Zeiss Fluorescent proteins poster
  5. Snapp, EL (2009) Fluorescent proteins: a cell biologist’s user guide Trends Cell Biol. 19/11: 649-55
  6. Lin et al (2010) Fluorescent proteins poster plus Supplementary information
  7. Costantini, LM & Snapp, EL (2013) Fluorescent proteins in cellular organelles: serious pitfalls and some solutions DNA Cell Biol. 32/11: 622-62
  8. Willems, J (2020) ORANGE: A CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing toolbox for epitope tagging of endogenous proteins in neurons. PLoS Biol. 18(4):e3000665.

Also see the Useful papers page and the Nobel prize lectures.

For building a paper model of GFP, see this link with instructions and this demonstration video.

Fluorescent Proteins A4 summary

eGFP structure

Table of Fluorescent Proteins Table 16-3 from Understanding Light Microscopy (2018)

FP Table from Cranfill (2016)

FP brightness